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Data Types
Why do we need different data types?
This is because not all data can be saved in the same way such as images need to have different things stored than spreadsheets do. We also need different data types because different programs can read different data types and different data types can be used to have more or less data stored for similar things.

Binary
Binary refers to a digital encoding/decoding system in which there are exactly two possible states. In digital data memory, storage, processing, and communications, the 0 and 1 values are sometimes called "low" and "high," respectively.



Text files

txt – This is a basic text file without any editing . this can be read by almost all text editor

rtf – This is a text file that can have images and text formatting. This can be read by most word processors.
doc – This is microsofts own file extension it can only be read by microsoft office and A DOC file can contain formatted text, images, tables, graphs, charts, page formatting, and print settings.
docx – This is microsofts own file extension from 2007 onwards, it cannot be read by earlier versions of word. However it can be read by other word processors. They can be compressed much smaller than the previous .doc files so meaning it takes less time to upload or download documents.
odt – This is a type of file extension that can be read by many word processors and are created by openoffice microsofts free version of microsoft office.



Graphic files
Bitmap- This is a type of image saving where every single pixel is mapped.

gif – this stand for graphic interchange format. They are a type of bitmap. GIFs uses lossless compression that does not degrade the quality of the image. However, GIFs store image data using indexed color, meaning each image can include a maximum of 256 colors. it is more effective for scanned images such as illustrations rather than color photos.
jpg/jpeg- JPEGs images were designed to make detailed photographic images as small as possible by removing information that the human eye won't notice. As a result it's a Lossy format, and saving the same file over and over will result in more data being lost over time. It has a palette of thousands of colours and so is great for photographs, but the lossy compression means it's bad for logos and line drawings: Not only will they look fuzzy, but such images will also have a larger file-size compared to GIFs.
– png Portable Network Graphics PNG files are a lossless format, meaning that compression doesn’t affect the quality of the image. Unlike JPGs, which create artifacts and blur images at a certain point, a PNG file will always look at least as sharp as the original image. Unfortunately, PNG files also tend to be a bit larger than JPG files, especially when they’re high resolution. This could make them difficult to share to the Web, or between friends and family. : PNG files sport the best capacity for transparency. PNGs create transparency in one of two ways. One of these methods employs the same approach used by GIFs, with a single color defined as transparent, and the other is to set an alpha channel. One of the advantages of PNG single-color transparency is that it doesn’t remove a color from the available palette. However, the alpha channel is a much smoother method, as it is far better at blending colors, and allows you to select different levels of transparency in specific regions. The transparent areas of the PNG will blend and adjust naturally to whatever is behind the image when the background of the page isn’t a solid white or black color. As shown above, the edges all fade from fully colored to partially transparent, subsequently creating a cleaner edge and smoother background transition.
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Data files
Txt- This is used to just send text and values are seperated by tabs. They don’t support formulas but are useful for transfering data between programs.
– csv – this stands for comma separated values and like txt don’t support formulas but values are seperated by commas instead of tabs.
– xls – this is microsoft excels file extension and supports multiple workbooks, formulas and allows users to put their bame on the document although it has a larger file size.
Ods- this stands for open document spreadsheet and is the file extension used for open office. It can be opened ODS files store information so that it can be arranged into columns and cells.


Video files
gif – An animated GIF is an image encoded in graphics interchange format (GIF),which contains a number of images or frames in a single file and is described by its own graphic control extension. The frames are presented in a specific order in order to convey animation. An animated GIF can loop endlessly or stop after a few sequences.
mpg/mpeg – Files stored in the MPG format are video files embedded with MPEG video data compression specifications and data encoding algorithms, and these MPG video files are appended with the .mpg extension. Specifically, MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 formatting standards are usually incorporated into MPG files, which are digital video data compression specifications and algorithms developed by the Moving Picture Experts Group. These MPG files are normally distributed on the Internet as video downloads, streamed videos and digital video content materials that are embedded unto Web pages. Windows Media Player is integrated with compatibility support and playback functionality for these MPG files, which means this media player can be used to open and view the video content of files stored in the .mpg format. Apple QuickTime Player is a cross platform digital multimedia player that is also embedded with compatibility support and playback functionality for these MPG files, which means Windows and Mac users can deploy this software to open and view the video content stored in files appended with the .mpg extension.
wmv – WMV stands for Windows Media Video. A .wmv file is a compressed video format that was developed by Microsoft for Internet streaming applications. Many of the videos and movies that are found online are in .wmv format. This type of file allows for large files to be converted into smaller files while still protecting the quality of the video within the file. This keeps the file size manageable without sacrificing picture clarity. When a .wmv file is played it is decompressed by the file reader while it is being played back on your computer.
mov – MOV, an MPEG-4 video container, is a common multimedia format often used in Apple's Quicktime for saving movies and other video files, using a proprietary compression algorithm developed by Apple Computer, compatible with both Macintosh and Windows platforms. Some DVCPRO (HD) files are also MOV ones. The format specifies a multimedia container file that contains one or more tracks, each of which stores a particular type of data: audio, video, effects, or text (e.g. for subtitles).
Each track either contains a digitally-encoded media stream (using a specific format) or a data reference to the media stream located in another file. Tracks are maintained in a hierarchical data structure consisting of objects called atoms. An atom can be a parent to other atoms or it can contain media or edit data, but it cannot do both.

flv - FLV, or Flash Video, is a container file format defined by Adobe Systems used to deliver audio and video data. FLV files are encoded in the same way as SWF files and are supported in Adobe Flash Player. FLV is a preferred format for embedded video on the web. Flash Video is viewable on most operating systems using Adobe Flash Player and web browser plugin, or one of several other programs. A video file converter can be used to convert an FLV file to another format Looking for how to open flv files? Checkout http://www.openthefile.net/extension/flv


Audio files
wav – The format for storing sound in files developed jointly by Microsoft and IBM. Support for WAV files was built into Windows 95 making it the de facto standard for sound on PCs. WAV sound files end with a.wav extension and can be played by nearly all Windows applications that support sound.
wma –WMA is a file extension used with Windows Media Player. WMA stands for Windows Media Audio. WMA is both an audio format and an audio codec. WMA was intended to be a competitor for the MP3 and RealAudio audio formats.
There are 4 versions of the WMA codec:
• WMA is the original codec, and was initially released in 1999.
• WMA Pro is an improved lossy codec intended for audio professionals, though it is limited by the current range of hardware and software needed to support the codec.
• WMA Lossless is a lossless codec intended for archival and storage purposes. Using VBR, it can compress the audio file without any loss of quality.
• WMA Voice is a lossy codec that was designed for low bandwith voice playback applications.

mp3- MP3 is the name of the file extension and also the common name of the type of file for MPEG-1 audio layer 3. Today, MP3 is the common audio format for consumer audio streaming and storage and the standard for the transfer and playback of music on most digital audio players. Because MP3 files are small, they can easily be transferred across the Internet.


PDF – Adobe Portable Document Format
Why is pdf required?
They can be read by many devices even those without word processors and can be compressed to smaller sizes than normal word documents.
Benefits of pdf files
• Permissions restriction situations. When the user can't access the doc site due to file permission restrictions (e.g., the user is a prospect and not a fully-privileged customer, but the sales team wants to give the prospect a preview of the documentation so the customer understands the level of technical detail involved in implementing the product), the zipped website works well.
• Offline situations. When the user is offline (for example, the user may be preparing to travel, or the user may be going on a plane or ocean cruise or remote region of the world where online access is spotty), the zipped website works well.

Uses for pdf files
These can be used for things that need to be viewed on many devices that you don’t want people changing such as brochures, leaflets, exam mark schemes, exam papers. Another reason PDF Files are useful is that they can be read using a variety of different programs as most web browsers allow people to access PDF’s. Therefore people can access pdfs on their phones.